General Eye Examination – frequently asked questions

Among our 5 sense organs, our eyes are the ones that show us the world’s beauties, connect us to life, give us 85% of our learning and perception capabilities and are the most complicated and important organs after the brain. From birth till death, there are many diseases which can threaten our eyes because of aging, genetics, systemic diseases and external factors. It is essential for a healthy and happy life to have regular, comprehensive eye examinations. Early diagnosis is a prerequisite for successful treatment in all eye diseases. And accurate diagnosis is possible with a comprehensive examination made using high technology. Experts recommend that children have an eye examination at 1, 3 and 5 years of age and adults once a year to identify possible risks even if they have no eye-related complaints.

A comprehensive eye examination can help to diagnose many life-threatening diseases such as diabetes, brain tumors and AIDS in addition to eye diseases at an early stage. Such disorders can be treated before they lead to serious problems.

  • Diabetes
  • Brain tumors
  • AIDS
  • MS
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Blood diseases
  • Heart diseases
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Parkinson’s disease

Stages of Ophthalmic Examination 

A comprehensive ophthalmic examination lasts at least 30 minutes. The fundus should always be checked during the examination by using eye drops.

Visual Acuity Testing

Our ability to see fine details is measured by tests comprising of numbers that gradually get smaller in size.

Refraction Tests

Loss of clear vision due to refractive errors requires glasses to be worn.

Examination of the Eyelids

The condition of the eyelids, lacrimal glands, tear drainage system and areas surrounding the eyes is checked.

Examination of Ocular Movement

Inner eye muscles control the pupil’s movements. Outer eye muscles ensure that the eyes are parallel. The condition of eye muscles is checked during strabismus and diplopia examinations.

Intraocular Pressure Measurement

Intraocular pressure is measured using automated or manual methods. These measurements are essential for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

Biomicroscopic Examination

The cornea, iris, lens and retina layers are examined in detail by using special devices.

Fundus Examination

This examination is performed by dilating the pupil with an eye drop and can reveal the signs of many conditions such as retinal detachment, glaucoma, hypertension, brain tumors and other diseases.


– When should babies have their first eye examination?

Take your baby for an examination at 1 year old even if he/she has no complaints. This examination protects the baby from amblyopia.

– Are the eyes harmed if one uses a computer for a long period of time?

The prevalence of allergies, dryness and blepharitis increases in people playing computer games or working on their PC/laptop for extended hours. This may also trigger far vision problems. Intermittent rest and blinking is necessary.

– What are the main signs of eye diseases?

Symptoms of eye diseases include watery, itchy eyes, pain, difficulty in reading, writing seeming blurry, eye- and head-ache, tilting one’s head when reading, squinting and focusing problems.

– How should the working environment be lit?

Use soft yellow lighting in your working environment. Sleep in a dark place so that your eyes can rest.

– Can eye diseases be transmitted by makeup?

Don’t share your makeup. Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, can be transmitted by other people’s makeup such as eye shadow, eye pencil and mascara.

– Are colored eyes more sensitive to the sun?

People with colored eyes in particular are more sensitive to sunlight. The incidence of redness is higher in people with colored eyes than others. Therefore, using sunglasses is more important for people with colored eyes.

– Is the sunlight and looking at the sun harmful for the eyes? 

Too much exposure to sunlight leads to opacification of the lens, cataract and macular sensitivity over time. Protective sunglasses should be used under direct sunlight.

– What should be done in case of impact to the eye or a foreign body entering the eye?

Do not rub your eye if you are suddenly struck in the eye or a foreign body enters your eye. If available, wash your eye with normal saline; if not, wash it with plenty of water and consult an ophthalmologist.

– Can diseases be transmitted by tears?

Do not wipe away other people’s tears. If that person has redness in the eye, excessive watering or swollen eyelids, that could be infectious. If you have come into contact, wash your hands with soap.

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